"Ecological Research" is the official English-language journal of the Ecological Society of Japan and publishes original papers on all aspects of ecology, in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Manuscripts published in this journal must fundamentally advance and/or change our understanding of ecological principles. Purely descriptive papers and those merely confirming or extending results of previous work will not be considered. We publish original articles, current topics in ecology, special features, technical reports, notes and comments, data papers, and forum papers. The journal is introducing "Biodiversity in Asia" as a new article type.
The articles in "Current topics in ecology" review recent advances in topical areas of ecology. "Special features" are collections of research articles and reviews organized by the guest editors. "Technical reports" propose the development of new methods with the potential to advance of ecological research. "Notes and comments" report new significant ecological findings that do not warrant standard full-length manuscripts. "Data papers" are intended to develop ecological research by electronically archiving excellent research data accompanying metadata of any ecological process. The "Forum" section is reserved for discussing the future work of ecology and should be written by authors authorized by the society.
The acceptance criteria for all papers are quality and originality of research and its significance to our readership. Final acceptance or rejection rests with the Editorial Board.
Of the papers published in each volume of "Ecological Research", approximately five will be chosen by members of the Editorial Board as "Excellent Papers" every year.
Manuscripts should be written so that they are intelligible to the professional reader who is not a specialist in the particular field.
Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities —tacitly or explicitly— at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.
Authors must state in a cover letter that the content has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere in any language, that all authors have contributed significantly, and that all authors are in agreement with the content of the manuscript.
Authors are required to suggest a candidate to be the handling editor from the list of Editorial Board members. They should also submit the names and e-mail addresses of five ecologists who are suitable referees.
Copyrights and Permissions
Papers accepted for publication become copyright of the Ecological Society of Japan. The author(s) guarantee(s) that the manuscript will not be published elsewhere in any language without the consent of the copyright owner (The Ecological Society of Japan), that the rights of third parties will not be violated, and that the publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation. Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Authors should submit their manuscripts online.
Please follow the hyperlink Submit online on the right and upload all of your manuscript files following the instructions given on the screen.
Original articles, Current topics in ecology, Special features, Technical reports, Notes and comments, Data papers, Forum
Authors will be asked to choose one desired article type during online
submission. The Editor-in-Chief reserves the right to change the article
type for each manuscript.
Length and Styles
As a general rule, papers should not exceed 7,000 words excluding references, although exceptions may be made. Authors should also consider the use of electronic supplementary material (ESM) where appropriate. Technical reports and Notes and comments should not exceed 3,000 words excluding references. Data papers contain only the abstract and keywords, and the data and metadata are available on a separate web site (or JaLTER database). To prepare data and metadata, please refer to the guidelines for data papers.
The affiliation(s) and address(es) of the author(s)
The e-mail address, telephone, and fax numbers of the corresponding author
The present address of any author, if different from that where the work was carried out, should be supplied in a footnote
An abstract should be 250 words or less, except for data papers (350 words). Each paper must be preceded by an abstract presenting (i) the premise of the study, (ii) methods, (iii) key results, and (iv) the main conclusion. The abstract should not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified references.
Five key words should be supplied after the Abstract for indexing purposes. For data papers, 10 key words should be supplied.
SI units should be used throughout except where non-SI units are more common
Abbreviations should be defined at first mention in the abstract and again in the main body of the text and used consistently thereafter.
Upon its first use in the title, abstract, and text, the common name of a species or an infraspecific taxon should be followed by the scientific name (Genus, species, and subspecies and/or variety) in parentheses. However, for well-known species, the scientific name may be omitted from the article title. If no common name exists in English, only the scientific name should be used. Genus, species, and infraspecific names should be in italics.
At the first mention of a chemical substance, give the generic name only.
When quoting specific materials, software, and equipment, the name and address of the manufacturer must be given in parentheses.
Please use the standard mathematical notation for formulae, symbols, etc.:
—Italic for single letters that denote mathematical constants, variables, and unknown quantities
—Roman/upright for numerals, operators, and punctuation, and commonly defined functions or abbreviations, e.g., cos, det, e or exp, lim, log, max, min, sin, tan, d (for derivative)
—Bold for vectors, tensors, and matrices.
Simple equations can be written as normal text. Use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line, e.g., Xp/Ym. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Equations that appear on separate lines are numbered consecutively.
The usage of geographic names for ocean areas should conform to the standards in "Limits of Oceans and Seas" (International Hydrographic Organization, 1953).
New nucleotide data must be deposited in the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases and an accession number obtained before the paper can be accepted for publication. Submission to any one of the three collaborating databanks is sufficient to ensure data entry in all. The accession number should be included in the manuscript as a footnote on the title page: (Note: Nucleotide sequence data reported are available in the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases under their accession numbers). If requested, the database will withhold release of data until publication. The most convenient method for submitting sequence data is by using the following URLs:
Cite references in the text by name and year in parentheses and order them chronologically. Some examples:
Negotiation research spans many disciplines (Thompson 1990).
This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman (1996).
This effect has been widely studied (Abbott 1991; Barakat et al. 1991; Kelso and Smith 1998; Medvec et al. 1999).
If there is more than one work by the same author or team of authors in the same year, a, b, c, etc. is added to the year, both in the text and in the list of references.
The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications, unpublished data, and publications from informal meetings are not to be listed in the reference list but should be listed in the text (e.g. Smith A 2000, unpublished data). Responsibility for the accuracy of bibliographic data rests entirely with the author. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list. Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of each work.
Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol 105:731–738. doi: 10.1007/s00421-008-0955-8
Article by DOI
Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med. doi:10.1007/s001090000086
South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London
Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230–257
Cartwright J (2007) Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/11/6/16/1. Accessed 26 June 2007
Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California
Always use the standard abbreviation of a journal's name according to the ISSN List of Title Word Abbreviations, see ISSN.org LTWA
For authors using EndNote, Springer provides an output style that supports the formatting of in- text citations and reference list: EndNote style (zip, 2 kB)
You can get the detailed guideline for figures & tables from here
Electronic Figure Submission
Supply all figures electronically.
Indicate what graphics program was used to create the artwork.
For vector graphics, the preferred format is EPS; for halftones, please use TIFF format.
Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.
Name your figure files with "Fig" and the figure number, e.g., Fig1.eps.
Definition: Black and white graphic with no shading.
Do not use faint lines and/or lettering and check that all lines and lettering within the figures are legible at final size.
All lines should be at least 0.1 mm (0.3 pt) wide.
Scanned line drawings and line drawings in bitmap format should have a minimum resolution of 1200 dpi.
Definition: Photographs, drawings, or paintings with fine shading, etc.
If any magnification is used in the photographs, indicate this by using scale bars within the figures themselves.
Halftones should have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi.
Definition: a combination of halftone and line art, e.g., halftones containing line drawing, extensive lettering, color diagrams, etc.
Combination artwork should have a minimum resolution of 600 dpi.
Color art is free of charge for online publication.
In print, however, they will appear in color only if the author agrees to make a contribution (950 EUR + 19% VAT per article) to printing costs. Otherwise the figures will be printed in black and white.
If black and white will be shown in the print version, make sure that the main information will still be visible. Many colors are not distinguishable from one another when converted to black and white. A simple way to check this is to make a xerographic copy to see if the necessary distinctions between the different colors are still apparent.
If the figures will be printed in black and white, do not refer to color in the captions.
Color illustrations should be submitted as RGB (8 bits per channel).
To add lettering, sans-serif fonts should be used (it is best to use Helvetica or Arial).
Keep lettering consistently sized throughout your final-sized artwork, usually about 2–3 mm (8–12 pt).
Variance of type size within an illustration should be minimal, e.g., do not use 8-pt type on an axis and 20-pt type for the axis label.
Avoid effects such as shading, outline letters, etc.
Do not include titles or captions into your illustrations.
All figures are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
Figures should always be cited in the text in consecutive numerical order.
For figures consisting of several panels, each panel should be denoted by lowercase letters ((a), (b), (c), etc.).
Statistical measures such as SD or SEM and other abbreviations should be identified in the legends.
If an appendix appears in your article/chapter and it contains one or more figures, continue the consecutive numbering of the main text. Do not number the appendix figures, "A1, A2, A3, etc." Figures in online appendices (electronic supplementary material) should, however, be numbered separately (e.g., Fig. S1, Fig. S2).
Each figure should have a concise caption describing accurately what the figure depicts. Include the captions in the text file of the manuscript, not in the figure file.
Figure captions begin with the term Fig. in bold type, followed by the figure number, also in bold type.
No punctuation is to be included after the number, nor is any punctuation to be placed at the end of the caption.
Identify all elements found in the figure in the figure caption; and use boxes, circles, etc., as coordinate points in graphs.
Identify previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference citation at the end of the figure caption.
Figure Placement and Size
When preparing your figures, size figures to fit in the column width.
The figures should be 84 mm, 129 mm, or 174 mm wide and not higher than 234 mm.
If you include figures that have already been published elsewhere, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format. Please be aware that some publishers do not grant electronic rights for free and that Springer will not be able to refund any costs that may have occurred to receive these permissions. In such cases, material from other sources should be used.
In order to give people of all abilities and disabilities access to the content of your figures, please make sure that:
All figures have descriptive captions (blind users could then use a text-to-speech software or a text-to-Braille hardware)
Patterns are used instead or in addition to colors for conveying information (color-blind users would then be able to distinguish the visual elements)
Any figure lettering has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1
Electronic supplementary material will be published in the online version only. It may consist of:
Information that cannot be printed: animations, video clips, sound recordings
Information that is more convenient in electronic form: sequences, spectral data, etc.
Large original data, e.g. additional tables, illustrations, etc.
Supply all supplementary material in standard file formats.
Please include in each file the following information: article title, journal name, author names; affiliation and e-mail address of the corresponding author.
To accommodate user downloads, please keep in mind that larger-sized files may require very long download times and that some users may experience other problems during downloading.
Audio, Video, and Animations
Always use MPEG-1 (.mpg) format.
Text and Presentations
Submit your material in PDF format; .doc or .ppt files are not suitable for long-term viability.
A collection of figures may also be combined in a PDF file.
Spreadsheets should be converted to PDF if no interaction with the data is intended.
If the readers should be encouraged to make their own calculations, spreadsheets should be submitted as .xls files (MS Excel).
Specialized format such as .pdb (chemical), .wrl (VRML), .nb (Mathematica notebook), and .tex can also be supplied.
Collecting Multiple Files
It is possible to collect multiple files in a .zip or .gz file.
If supplying any supplementary material, the text must make specific mention of the material as a citation, similar to that of figures and tables (Fig. S1, Fig. S2... Fig. S# for ESM figures; Table S1, Table S2...Table S# for ESM tables).
Refer to the supplementary files as "Electronic Supplementary Material (ESM)", e.g., "... as shown in the animation (ESM 3)", "... additional data are given in ESM 4".
Name the files consecutively, e.g. "ESM_3.mpg", "ESM_4.pdf".
For each supplementary material, please supply a concise caption describing the content of the file.
Processing of supplementary files
Electronic supplementary material will be published as received from the author without any conversion, editing, or reformatting.
In order to give people of all abilities and disabilities access to the content of your supplementary files, please make sure that:
The manuscript contains a descriptive caption for each supplementary material.
Video files do not contain anything that flashes more than three times per second (so that users prone to seizures caused by such effects are not put at risk)
This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.
Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation can be achieved by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include:
The manuscript has not been submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
The manuscript has not been published previously (partly or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work (please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the hint of text-recycling ("self-plagiarism")).
A single study is not split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (e.g. "salami-publishing").
No data have been fabricated or manipulated (including images) to support your conclusions.
No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author's own ("plagiarism"). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions are secured for material that is copyrighted.
Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.
Consent to submit has been received explicitly from all co-authors, as well as from the responsible authorities - tacitly or explicitly - at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out, before the work is submitted.
Authors whose names appear on the submission have contributed sufficiently to the scientific work and therefore share collective responsibility and accountability for the results.
Changes of authorship or in the order of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.
Requesting to add or delete authors at revision stage, proof stage, or after publication is a serious matter and may be considered when justifiably warranted. Justification for changes in authorship must be compelling and may be considered only after receipt of written approval from all authors and a convincing, detailed explanation about the role/deletion of the new/deleted author. In case of changes at revision stage, a letter must accompany the revised manuscript. In case of changes after acceptance or publication, the request and documentation must be sent via the Publisher to the Editor-in-Chief. In all cases, further documentation may be required to support your request. The decision on accepting the change rests with the Editor- in-Chief of the journal and may be turned down. Therefore authors are strongly advised to ensure the correct author group, corresponding author, and order of authors at submission.
Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc.
If there is a suspicion of misconduct, the journal will carry out an investigation following the COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, the allegation seems to raise valid concerns, the accused author will be contacted and given an opportunity to address the issue. If misconduct has been established beyond reasonable doubt, this may result in the Editor-in-Chief's implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:
If the article is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction, either an erratum will be placed with the article or in severe cases complete retraction of the article will occur. The reason must be given in the published erratum or retraction note.
To ensure objectivity and transparency in research and to ensure that accepted principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed, authors should include information regarding sources of funding, potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial), informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals.
Authors should include the following statements (if applicable) in a separate section entitled "Compliance with Ethical Standards" on the title page when submitting a paper:
Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals
Please note that standards could vary slightly per journal dependent on their peer review policies (i.e. double blind peer review) as well as per journal subject discipline. Before submitting your article check the Instructions for Authors carefully.
The corresponding author should be prepared to collect documentation of compliance with ethical standards and send if requested during peer review or after publication.
The Editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned guidelines. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned guidelines.
Authors must disclose all relationships or interests that could have direct or potential influence or impart bias on the work. Although an author may not feel there is any conflict, disclosure of relationships and interests provides a more complete and transparent process, leading to an accurate and objective assessment of the work. Awareness of a real or perceived conflicts of interest is a perspective to which the readers are entitled. This is not meant to imply that a financial relationship with an organization that sponsored the research or compensation received for consultancy work is inappropriate. Examples of potential conflicts of interests that are directly or indirectly related to the research may include but are not limited to the following:
Research grants from funding agencies (please give the research funder and the grant number)
Honoraria for speaking at symposia
Financial support for attending symposia
Financial support for educational programs
Employment or consultation
Support from a project sponsor
Position on advisory board or board of directors or other type of management relationships
Financial relationships, for example equity ownership or investment interest
Intellectual property rights (e.g. patents, copyrights and royalties from such rights)
Holdings of spouse and/or children that may have financial interest in the work
In addition, interests that go beyond financial interests and compensation (non-financial interests) that may be important to readers should be disclosed. These may include but are not limited to personal relationships or competing interests directly or indirectly tied to this research, or professional interests or personal beliefs that may influence your research.
The corresponding author collects the conflict of interest disclosure forms from all authors. In author collaborations where formal agreements for representation allow it, it is sufficient for the corresponding author to sign the disclosure form on behalf of all authors. Examples of forms can be found here.
The corresponding author will include a summary statement in the text of the manuscript in a separate section before the reference list, that reflects what is recorded in the potential conflict of interest disclosure form(s).
Funding: This study was funded by X (grant number X).
Conflict of Interest: Author A has received research grants from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company X and owns stock in Company Y. Author C is a member of committee Z.
If no conflict exists, the authors should state: Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Upon acceptance of your article you will receive a link to the special Author Query Application at Springer's web page where you can sign the Copyright Transfer Statement online and indicate whether you wish to order OpenChoice, offprints, or printing of figures in color.
In addition to the normal publication process (whereby an article is submitted to the journal and access to that article is granted to customers who have purchased a subscription), Springer provides an alternative publishing option: Springer Open Choice. A Springer Open Choice article receives all the benefits of a regular subscription-based article, but in addition is made available publicly through Springer's online platform SpringerLink.
Authors will be asked to transfer copyright of the article to the Publisher (or grant the Publisher exclusive publication and dissemination rights). This will ensure the widest possible protection and dissemination of information under copyright laws.
Open Choice articles do not require transfer of copyright as the copyright remains with the author. In opting for open access, the author(s) agree to publish the article under the Creative Commons Attribution License.
Offprints can be ordered by the corresponding author.
Online publication of color illustrations is free of charge. For color in the print version, authors will be expected to make a contribution towards the extra costs.
The purpose of the proof is to check for typesetting or conversion errors and the completeness and accuracy of the text, tables and figures. Substantial changes in content, e.g., new results, corrected values, title and authorship, are not allowed without the approval of the Editor.
After online publication, further changes can only be made in the form of an Erratum, which will be hyperlinked to the article.
The article will be published online after receipt of the corrected proofs. This is the official first publication citable with the DOI. After release of the printed version, the paper can also be cited by issue and page numbers.
Manuscripts that are accepted for publication will be checked by our copyeditors for spelling and formal style. This may not be sufficient if English is not your native language and substantial editing would be required. In that case, you may want to ask a native speaker to help you or arrange for your manuscript to be checked by a professional language editor prior to submission. A clear and concise language will help editors and reviewers concentrate on the scientific content of your paper and thus smooth the peer review process.
The following editing service provides language editing for scientific articles in medicine, biomedical and life sciences, chemistry, physics, engineering, business/economics, and humanities
Edanz Editing Global
Please contact the editing service directly to make arrangements for editing and payment. Use of an editing service is neither a requirement nor a guarantee of acceptance for publication.